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    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Paulina de Graffenried (Mrs. James Belton Pickett) and Sallie Pickett (Mrs. Robert C. Cummings)


    Portrait, landscape, & genre painter, Francois Bernard is known in Louisiana primarily for his portraits in oil, pastel, & watercolor. He was probably born Nimes, France.


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Choctaw Village Near Chefuncte


    He studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts at Paris & Collin' & exhibited in the Paris salon between 1842 & 1849. His portraits of Louisiana residents are dated as early as 1848, when he apparently was visiting.


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Basilice Toledano - Mrs John MacDonald Taylor


    Bernard returned in Dec. 1856, to settle in New Orleans, supposedly at the invitation of a group of sugar planters who wanted him to paint their portraits. He worked in New Orleans during the winter months & traveled as an itinerant painter in
    the summer.


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Girl in White Dress


    It is probable that Bernard returned to France during these travels, since his children were born there (ca. 1857 & ca. 1862). He seems to have left New Orleans during the Civil War & traveled, especially around Mandeville, Louisiana, where he painted local Indians.


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Elizabeth Alice Briot Alces


    In February of 1867, it was reported that he had returned to the city. He taught drawing to Alexandre Alaux & advised the continuation of his studies in Europe.


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Two Chitimacha Indians


    He exhibited in New Orleans at Wageners in 1867; at the Grand State Fair in 1868; at Wagener & Meyer's from 1869-71; & at the American Exposition from 1885-6. About 1875, Bernard left New Orleans for Peru.


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Lise Jone McCall - Mrs Frederick G Freret


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Mrs Mary Campbell Strother Moore


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Delphine Odile Fleitas - Madame Alcee Villere


    François Bernard (French-born Louisiana painter, 1812–a 1880) Angele Longer - Mrs Evan Jones McCall


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    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Member of the Beauviais-Decuir Family

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (1801–1888) was a French neoclassical portrait painter working in New Orleans in the 1840s-1850s.

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Antoinette Decuir

    Amans was trained in the French neoclassical tradition of portraiture. He exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1831 to 1837.

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Corinne Knott - Mrs Gustave Miltenberger

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Augustine Massicot Tanneret

    Artist Jean Joseph Vaudechamp & Amans traveled on the same ship from France to New Orleans in 1837. Following Vaudechamp’s departure from Louisiana, in 1839, Amans assumed the role as the most celebrated portraitist in Louisiana.

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Madame Francoise Gabrielle Rosa Montegut Pitot

    Amans later returned to Paris, where he died in 1888.

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Clara Mazureau

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Women in Green Dress A Member of the Beauvais-Decuir Family

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Creole in a Red Turban

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Portrait of a Lady

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Josephine Roman Aime

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans (French-born Louisiana artist, 1801–1888) Reverend Mother Sainte Seraphine


    Thanks to American Gallery for inspiration!


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     Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Mme Francoise St Amant


    French-born Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (1790–1866) was a was a pupil of Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson. In the winter of 1831–32, he sailed to New Orleans, Louisiana, seeking his fortune. Many of the Louisiana Creoles identified with French culture & selected Vaudechamp to paint portraits for them. Over the next 10 years, he spent mostly winters in New Orleans, painting popular portraits of the locals.


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Lady in White Dress


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) A Creole Lady


     Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Edmond Jeane Forstall and Desirae Forstall


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Mrs Samuel Bell


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Mrs Antoine Julien Meffre-Rouzan


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Daughter of Samuel Hermann


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Marie Emeranthe Becnel Brou Madame Samuel Herman


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) A Young Lady


     Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Woman with Fur Collar


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Two Children


     Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Mrs Louis Edouard Forstall ( Mathilde Plauche)


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Madame Morales de Marigny


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Woman with Fur Boa


    Jean Joseph Vaudechamp (French-born New Orleans artist, 1790–1866) Fanny Augusta Hunt


    Thanks to American Gallery for inspiration!



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    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Martha Washington. 1793


    John Trumbull 1756–1843, American painter, was the son of Gov. Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut. He served in the Continental Army early in the Revolution as an aide to Washington. He resigned his commission in 1777, to devote himself to painting. In 1780, he went to London to study under Benjamin West. There he was imprisoned on suspicion of treason and finally deported. In 1784, he returned to London, where, at the suggestion of West and with the encouragement of Thomas Jefferson, he began his paintings of national history. Trumbull excelled in small-scale painting, especially of oil miniatures, the best of which were done in the United States between 1789 & 1793. In the latter year, he returned to London as secretary to John Jay & remained for 10 years as one of the commissioners to carry out provisions of the Jay Treaty. He returned to the United States in 1804, where he painted portraits, panoramas, and landscapes, & designed the meetinghouse in Lebanon, Conn.  In London from 1808 to 1816, he tried unsuccessfully to establish himself as a portraitist. Returning to New York in 1816, he secured a commission from Congress to decorate the Capitol rotunda.  In 1831, he founded the Trumbull Gallery at Yale, one of the earliest art museums in the English-speaking colonies, depositing much of his work there in exchange for an annuity.

    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Governor Jonathan Trumbull Sr and Mrs Trumbull (Faith Robinson) 1783


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Five Miniatures Framed Together, 1791-93


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Mr. And Mrs. Thomas Russell 1793


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Mrs George Codwise (Anna Maria)


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Mrs. John Barker Church (Angelica Schuyler), Son Philip and Servant


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Mrs. Isaac Bronson (Anna Olcott)


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Misses Mary and Hannah Murray.


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Mrs. John Trumbull (Sarah Hope Harvey, 1774-1824), 1820-1823


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Sarah Trumbull with a Spaniel


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Elizabeth Ball Hughes


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Mrs. John Murray


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Mrs Charles Carroll Jr. (Harriet Chew)


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Sarah Elizsabeth Rogers Hopkins


    John Trumbull (American artist, 1756 – 1843) Sarah Trumbull on her Deathbed


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    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) Broadway New York City 1840-44


    Born in Naples, Nicolino Calyo was an accomplished American nineteenth century painter who worked first in Baltimore, Maryland, and then moved to New York City.  Before coming to America, he studied at the Naples Academy learning Neoclassical, Italian, & Dutch landscape techniques.  Calyo fled Italy in 1821, having participated in an unsuccessful rebellion against Ferdinand I.


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) Lemon and Orange Stand 1840-44 New York City


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) Auctioneer in the Public Streets New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) Apple Seller New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) Oyster Stand New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) Root Beer Seller New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Baker Cart New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Boots Cleaner New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Cab New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Butcher New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Charcoal Cart New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Market Woman New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Ice Cart New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Soap Fat Man New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Mead, Ginger, and Root Beer Cart New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Soap-locks or the Bowery Boys New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Milk Man New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Stawberry Girl New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) The Oysters Man New York City 1840-44


    Nicolino Calyo (Italian-born American artist, 1799-1884) View of New York City



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    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) A Choctaw Woman


    As a child growing up in Pennsylvania, Catlin spent many hours looking for American Indian artifacts. His fascination with Native Americans was kindled by his mother, who told him stories of the Western Frontier & how she was captured by a tribe when she was a young girl. Following a brief career as a lawyer, he produced 2 major collections of paintings of American Indians & published a series of books chronicling his travels among native peoples. Claiming his interest in America’s "vanishing race" was sparked by a visiting American Indian delegation in Philadelphia, he set out to record America’s native people.  Catlin began his journey in 1830, when he accompanied General William Clark on a diplomatic mission up the Mississippi River into Native American territory.  During later trips along the Arkansas, Red & Mississippi rivers, as well as visits to Florida & the Great Lakes, he produced more than 500 paintings.  When Catlin returned east in 1838, he assembled  his Indian Gallery, & began delivering public lectures.  In 1841, Catlin published Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, in two volumes, with about 300 engravings. Three years later he published 25 plates, entitled Catlin’s North American Indian Portfolio, and, in 1848, Eight Years’ Travels and Residence in Europe. From 1852 to 1857, he traveled through South & Central America and later returned for further exploration in the Far West as recorded in Last Rambles amongst the Indians of the Rocky Mountains & the Andes (1868) & My Life among the Indians (1909). The nearly complete surviving set of Catlin’s Indian Gallery painted in the 1830s is now part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum's collection. Some 700 sketches are in the American Museum of Natural History, New York City.


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) A'h-tee-wát-o-mee, a Woman


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Ah'-kay-ee-pix-en, Woman Who Strikes Many


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) A Seminole Woman 1838


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Assiniboin Woman and Child


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Chee-a-ex-e-co, Daughter of Deer without a Heart 1838


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) A Comanche family outside their teepee, 1841


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Chin-cha-pee, Fire Bug That Creeps, Wife of Pigeon's Egg Head


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Du-cór-re-a, Chief of the Tribe, and His Family


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Eeh-nís-kim, Crystal Stone, Wife of the Chief


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Pshán-shaw, Sweet-scented Grass, Twelve-year-old Daughter of Bloody Hand


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Hón-je-a-pút-o, Wife of Bear-catcher


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Hee-láh-dee, Pure Fountain, Wife of The Smoke


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Jú-ah-kís-gaw, Woman With Her Child in a Cradle


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Kah-béck-a, The Twin, Wife of Bloody Hand


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Koon-za-ya-me, Female War Eagle


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Káh-kée-tsee, Thighs, a Wichita Woman


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Kay-a-gís-gis, a Young Woman


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Mee-chéet-e-neuh, Wounded Bear's Shoulder, Wife of the Chief


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Mi-néek-ee-súnk-te-ka, Mink, a Beautiful Girl


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Mong-shóng-sha, Bending Willow, Wife of Great Chief


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Chée-ah-ká-tchée, Wife of Nót-to-way


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Mún-ne-o-ye, a Woman


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Seet-sé-be-a, Midday Sun, a Pretty Girl


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Oó-je-en-á-he-a, Woman Who Lives in a Bear's Den


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Ru-ton-ye-wee-ma, Strutting Pigeon, Wife of White Cloud


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Sha-kó-ka, Mint, a Pretty Girl


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Tchón-su-móns-ka, Sand Bar, Wife of the Trader François Chardon


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Shé-de-ah, Wild Sage, a Wichita Woman


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Tís-se-wóo-na-tís, She Who Bathes Her Knees, Wife of the Chief


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Tchow-ee-pút-o-kaw, a Woman


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Tsee-moúnt, Great Wonder, Carrying Her Baby in Her Robe


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Tow-ée-ka-wet, a Cree Woman


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Túnk-aht-óh-ye, Thunderer, a Boy, and Wun-pán-to-mee, White Weasel, a Girl


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Two Comanche Girls


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Wah-pe-séh-see, Mother of the Chief


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Wáh-chee-te, Wife of Cler-mónt, and Child


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Wife of The Six


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Wa-quóth-e-qua, The Buck's Wife, Wife of the Whale


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Wife of Two Crows


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Woman and Child, Showing How the Heads of Children are Flattened


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Wi-lóoh-tah-eeh-tcháh-ta-máh-nee, Red Thing That Touches in Marching, Daughter of Black Rock


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    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Portrait of a Woman


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Mary Catlin


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Mrs. George Catlin (Clara Bartlett Gregory)


    George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872) Mrs. Putnam Catlin (Mary Polly Sutton)


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  • 11/18/12--16:15: Fall in 19th-century America


  • John George Brown (American genre painter, 1831-1913) Autumn Landscape


    John George Brown (American genre painter, 1831-1913) The Country Gallants


    Winslow Homer (American artist, 1836-1910) In Autumn Woods


    John George Brown (American genre painter, 1831-1913)  Among the Trees


    John George Brown (American genre painter, 1831-1913)  Gathering Autumn Leaves


    Winslow Homer (American artist, 1836-1910) Autumn


    John George Brown (American genre painter, 1831-1913)  Resting in the Woods


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  • 11/22/12--04:27: Native American Thanks...

  • The Picture Collection of the New York Public Library Image ID: 806997

    The Thanksgivings

    Translated from a traditional Iroquois prayer by Harriet Maxwell Converse
     
    We who are here present thank the Great Spirit that we are here to praise Him.
     
    We thank Him that He has created men and women, and ordered that these beings shall always be living to multiply the earth.
     
    We thank Him for making the earth and giving these beings its products to live on.
     
    We thank Him for the water that comes out of the earth and runs for our lands.
     
    We thank Him for all the animals on the earth.
     
    We thank Him for certain timbers that grow and have fluids coming from them for us all.
     
    We thank Him for the branches of the trees that grow shadows for our shelter.
     
    We thank Him for the beings that come from the west, the thunder and lightning that water the earth.
     
    We thank Him for the light which we call our oldest brother, the sun that works for our good.
     
    We thank Him for all the fruits that grow on the trees and vines.
     
    We thank Him for his goodness in making the forests, and thank all its trees.
     
    We thank Him for the darkness that gives us rest, and for the kind Being of the darkness that gives us light, the moon.
     
    We thank Him for the bright spots in the skies that give us signs, the stars.
     
    We give thanks that the voice of the Great Spirit can still be heard through the words of Ga-ne-o-di-o.
     
    We thank the Great Spirit that we have the privilege of this pleasant occasion.
     
    We give thanks for the persons who can sing the Great Spirit's music, and hope they will be privileged to continue in his faith.
     
    We thank the Great Spirit for all the persons who perform the ceremonies on this occasion.

    Harriet Maxwell Converse (1836-1903) was born Elmira, New York, into a family fascinated by Native cultures. Both her grandfather & her father were Indian traders in the Seneca Nation. At the age of 25 Harriet married Frank Converse, a musician known as "The Father of the Banjo."  The couple traveled throughout the U.S & Europe. Harriet developed her writing talents & became a published poet & regular contributor to national magazines. By 1881, Harriet began to write about the Six Nations. She traveled to reservations in western New York as well as Canada, collecting cultural artifacts today in the collections of the State Museum at Albany. She also became a political advocate for the Six Nations.  The Seneca Nation recognized Harriet's efforts by adopting her into the Snipe Clan.  In 1891, Converse became the 1st white woman condoled as a Six Nations Chief.  She was invested with the responsibility of the welfare of her adopted people, & given the name "The Watcher."


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    Lilly Martin Spencer (American artist, 1822 –1902) The Jolly Washerwoman


    By 1914. the art of the laundry had become a subject taught in one of  America's finest universities.  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston, who was an Instructor of Laundering, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, was included in the series Lippencott's Home Manuals.


    Charles Frederic Ulrich (American painter, 1858-1908) Washerwomen


    "The earliest known method of washing depended entirely on the action of the running water of streams. If the water was not running, the primitive peoples quite naturally used twisting, shaking, flopping, slapping and pounding. They were dependent on the solvent power of water for many kinds of soil, but if any stain was not soluble in water, there was no way to take it out. We find it stated that in B. C. 2000 Egyptians on the Nile stamped their clothes with the feet, beat them with white clay, and wrung them by twisting and turning, one end being held between the feet. Homer in the "Odyssey" tells of the early wash days in Greece."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914


    Anna Elizabeth Klumpke (American painter, 1856–1942) In the Wash House


    "The story is told that a collar in London in 1832 drew attention to the question of sterilizing the clothes; as a result a poor woman set up a wash-boiler, soap kettle, and other appliances, and so we have the first public wash-house. Here washwomen paid a penny for the privilege of its use, and in 1842 a public laundry was established in Liverpool.Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914


    Charles Courtney Curran (American painter, 1861-1942) Hanging Out Linen


    "Sunshine is the simplest method of bleaching and is also the safest. To bleach with sunshine, the garment should be washed clean, then spread while wet in the sun. The sun, together with the oxygen of the water, is most effective in its work. This method requires the least knowledge and the most-time, but no destruction of fiber results. Often the garments are spread in the dew. This dew takes the place of sprinkling the clothes. With either process we are dependent upon the oxygen supplied by the moisture.Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914


    Charles Courtney Curran (American painter, 1861-1942) A Breezy Day 1887


    "A washing solution must be established to suit different kinds of water. Some of the hard waters will require more soda in the soap solution than others. The water should be measured, the soap weighed, and the two heated at a low temperature in the soap tank until all soap is dissolved and the liquor is amber color. The weighed quantity of soda is sprinkled in, and the solution simmered another ten minutes. For a general idea of proportion one may use, if water is hard:   5 lbs. of soap. 10 lbs. of soda. 25 gallons of water."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914


    Martha Walter (American artist, 1875–1976) Washday


    "Water has solvent power. The early laundress washed her clothes in the running brook and the water dissolved out the dirt. To hasten its work the laundress often pounded the clothes with a paddle or stone or trod them. This process was slow, and as time became a consideration it seemed wise to find some cleansing agent that would add its power to that of the water.  The alkaline nature of urine was learned, and it was the custom to have urine collected in large urns in central places in the village. This became the public source of supply for the first chemical aid in washing. Even in our mother's early memory urine was used in dyeing the yarn."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914


    Charles Courtney Curran (American painter, 1861-1942) Shadows


    "Later wood ashes were taken from the housewife's fire, covered with water and the pearlash or potash was dissolved—"leached." The clothes were soaked in this, and the pearl-ash or lye aided in the cleaning process, but it was destructive to the clothing. An illustration of this method is found in the Italian caldron, where the clothes are placed, the finest in the center, covered with canvas, ashes placed on top and water poured over.  To deaden the potash, later it was mixed with kitchen grease, thus making a kind of soap. This soap was of irregular composition, with the potash usually in excess. This potash "broke" the hardness of the water, and the suds acted as a carrier of dirt, thus making a double cleansing agent."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914


    John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Red Kimono on the Roof 1912


    "Finally in this present period (1914), in the domestic laundry, wash-boards and other primitive equipment are giving way to the various mechanical devices which are great labor savers, and time savers, and often indeed fabric savers. Washing machines driven by motors, special washing devices for clothes, boilers and wash-tubs, wringers (even motor driven), and steam drying rooms, are making the work less of a drudgery.  Even the irons are no longer heated with smoking hot coals and dragged over the garment, but by gas or electricity giving off heat with evenness of temperature and continued action."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914


    John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Backyards, Greenwich Village 1914


    William Merritt Chase (American painter, 1849-1916) Wash Day Back Yard Reminiscence of Brooklyn 1886


    John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Woman's Work 1912


    Robert Spencer (American painter, 1879-1931) Washer Woman 1919


    Robert Frederick Blum (American artist, 1857–1903) In the Laundry


    William Aiken Walker (American painter, 1839-1921) Autumn Scene in North Carolina with Cabin, Wash Line, and Cornfield 1908


    Robert Spencer (American painter, 1879-1931) Woman Hanging Out Clothes 1917


    Edward Potthast (American painter, 1857-1927) The Washerwomen


    John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Sun and Wind on the Roof 1915


    John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Women Drying Their Hair 1912


     Will Hicok Low (American Painter, 1853-1932) Montlery Sur Long


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    Platt Powell Ryder (American painter, 1821-1896) By the Hearth 1881


    Enoch Wood Perry (American painter, 1831-1913) Saturday Afternoon.


    Platt Powell Ryder (American painter, 1821-1896) Fireside Companion


    Platt Powell Ryder (American painter, 1821-1896) The Grandmother


    Platt Powell Ryder (American painter, 1821-1896) Fireside Chat



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    Edward o'Neill born 1858 in Brookfield, Massachusetts
    Remembers Christmas in 1938
    American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1940
    Interview by Louise G. Bassett for the Living Lore section.

    Edward o'Neil was born in Brookfield, Massachusetts, the son of Daniel o'Neil, an Irish immigrant and Sarah Pritchard, daughter of a foreign missionary. Daniel o'Neil a railroad worker and farmer was a hard bitten man with little education and a decided contempt for any on who had. Mrs. o'Neil was gentle and sweet, but completely terrified by her domineering husband. For years they lived in a small house in an isolated part of Brookfield. Edward o'Neil has always lived in Brookfield. When very young he refused to go to school and no one in the family made him. He has never done much work - odd jobs now and again, but has depended on his hardworking sisters to keep him. He scorns any part in the community affairs except to criticize - something he does well and often.
    Edward o'Neil, Brookfield, Massachusetts. His only "special skills" are negative - a large and colorful vocabulary of cuss words and a flaming temper which he does not attempt to control.

    An Old Irishman tells about Christmas

    Edward o'Neil, who lives on the "old North Brookfield road, is one of Brookfield's oldest but most vigorous inhabitants.

    I met him the other day just as he was finishing a five mile walk, his hands full of bitter-sweet, lovelier than I have ever seen around here. "Oh, where did you get it," I exclaimed. "I won't tell you," he snapped at me," if I did - you'd tell some one else - then they'd tell someone and purtty soon every fool in town would be goin' there to get some an' there wouldn't be none left. I like it myself an' I'm goin' to keep it fer myself long's I kin. I'll give you a piece though, long's you want some so bad." He selected a long branch with care.

    "I'm saving this for Christmas" he added.

    "What was the first Christmas you actually remember?" I asked.  In his faded eyes I saw a far off dreamy look.

    "The first Christmas I remember was when I was four years old. The reason I remember it was because my mother gave me a big lump of brown sugar with a few drops of peppermint on it. I nibbled at that sugar a little bit at a time all day long and I can taste that peppermint to this day. You see, we were sort of pioneer people and we didn't have much - nor not much to get anything with. Every winter in my early days was hard times.

    "The only other present my mother had to give that Christmas was a quarter of a dried orange peel and she give it to my sister to put in her bureau drawer to make her clothes smell sweet. My father didn't know much about Christmas. He'd been brought up by the Indians. His parents had been killed by redskins and he lived with the Indians until he was nearly twenty. My mother's parents were missionaries and of course she knew all about Christmas.

    "I don't remember much about the Christmas's that came after that one when I got the lump of sugar with the peppermint on it, until I was twelve years old when my father gave me six boughten fish hooks. We made most of our fish hooks by forein' 'em ourselves before the fire. About that time my father got to flat boatin' down the river. Some time he'd be gone three or four months and when he came back he'd bring back things like store clothes and boots, and once he brought me a tie and then my mother'd hide 'em away and keep 'em and give 'em to us for Christmas. And from September 'till Christmas us kids'd have lots of fun huntin' around over the house and wonderin' what we was goin' to get.

    "When I was fifteen my mother gave me a rifle of my own for Christmas. My father'd got it in Boston and this, with the exception of the one when I got the peppermint sugar, was my best Christmas.

    "I was a grown man almost twenty-one before I ever saw a Christmas tree. A German family moved near us and they had a tree every year. They dipped the little candles themselves, colored 'em red with poke berry ink and fastened 'em on the trees some-how with wild turkey ribs. I never'd seen anything so purty in my life as those Christmas trees. We had to work awful hard in them days but we had our fun same as we do now. Well, if I don't run acrost you again, I wish you Merry Christmas."

    And away he went, being stopped at every half block by someone who wanted to know, "Where did you get that lovely bitter sweet?"

    But he only snapped "I won't tell you."


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    Christmas During the Civil War in South Carolina
    American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1940.
    Mrs. Ida Baker, E. Main St., Union, S.C.
    Interviewer: Caldwell Sims, Union, S.C. (11/10/37)

    REMINISCENCES

    "At Christmas times during the Civil War, people in Union did not have luxuries, at all. Union was only a village, & the stores did not carry much at best. Charleston was blockaded & even Spartanburg which was not much larger than Union at that time did not carry luxuries in her stores, either in food or wearing apparel.

    "Those who had money could not buy, for it was not to be had. Everybody had to use parched wheat, parched okra seed or parched raw sweet potato chips for coffee. Not even tea came in. We used sassafras & other native herb teas both daily & at parties when the herb teas were in season. Some were good, but the substitute coffee was not. The darkies cut the potatoes up into small squares & parched them in the coffee parcher. This coffee needed no sugar, but for other things we used sorghum for sugar & it was a poor substitute. I liked the okra seed better than any of the coffee substitutes.

    "Women of the South think that the cereal companies got their idea from them for making the many cereals which are on the market. Before the war, cereals like grapenuts & wheat flakes were unknown.

    "We had plenty of food during the war. The woods were dense & they were full of wild animal life, & the streams were full of fish. On Christmas the dinner tables were weighted down with turkey & other wild fowls & many delicacies from the garden, field or stream. No one ever thought of not enjoying the coffee & tea. If sugar was missed it was never mentioned. Even the darkies boasted of the fine coffee & tea brewed from the herbs & wheat.

    "Beautiful clothes were rare during the war. Most folks had to go back to the loom & spinning wheel of Revolutionary times. Of course the age of 1800 ushered in a new era in dress, & by the time the Confederate war came along, women wore gorgeous silks & satins, & in those days it took many yards of cloth for a dress.

    "However, during the war we -- my sister & I -- did not have to resort to coarse homespun cloth for our clothes. A man, Mr. William Keenan, who built the house where Mrs. T.C. Duncan now lives, was a merchant. He went out of business & my mother bought four trunks full of silks, satins, brocades & linens from him about this time, which was at the outbreak of the war. Mother had these trunks stored in our attic in the house where Mrs. J. Clough Wallace now lives. That is the Meng house. Little girls could sew at the age of twelve in those days. They thought nothing of doing a tedious piece of needle work or hand embrodiery at that age. However, Union had a dress maker at that time, a Mrs. Frasier.

    "Mother, my sister & I made our clothes from the things in those trunks. We only made now clothes at Christmas time during the war, & the materials in the trunk lasted."

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    JANUARY,

    1. 1776. Norfolk, Virginia, cannonaded and burnt by the British under lord Dunmore.

    1. 1781. Congress appointed John Adams minister plenipotentiary to the United Provinces of Holland.

    Same day—The whole of the Pennsylvania line at Morristown, New Jersey, Revolted, except three regiments, whom they fired upon and compelled to join in the revolt. The men had enlisted for three years, and that term having expired, they wished to be discharged, but the officers endeavoured to keep them during the war, this they considered an imposition. General Wayne was very near being killed, several officers were wounded, and one captain killed. Thirteen hundred marched for Philadelphia—when they reached Princeton, general sir Henry Clinton sent two spies to prevail on them to join the British; but his offers were rejected, the spies delivered to general Wayne, and executed on the tenth. On the ninth the revolters marched to Trenton to meet a committee of Congress, and on the 15th the whole business was adjusted.

    1. 1794. Thomas Paine, author of the Rights of Man, Age of Reason, &c. and Anacliarsis Cloots another member of the National Convention, arrested by Robespierre, and sent to prison in Paris. The number of prisoners then in the prisons of Paris, estimated at 4650 persons, most of whom perished on the scaffold; which fate Paine escaped by accident, was liberated, and took his seat in the Convention December 3, 1794, his companion Cloots was guillotined March 24, 1794.

    1. 1801. Act of the British Parliament establishing the Union between England and Ireland, and proclamation made designating the ensign to be worn by the king's ships, &c.

    1. 1804. Hayti declared Independent, and J. J. Desalines appointed governor-general for life, with power to name his successor, and to make peace or declare war. It has since been erected into a kingdom,  January 1, 1817. Henry I, king of Hayti, issued a proclamation proscribing French manners and principles and language, stating his determination gradually to introduce the English language: he had previously established several schools on the plans of Lancaster and Bell.

    1. 1805. The Permanent Bridge over the Schuylkill, at High Street, Philadelphia, first opened for the reception of passengers. Same day, thanksgiving day in Philadelphia.

    1. 1809 to the first Jan. 1810, there died in Philadelphia about 2004 persons, the number of the inhabitants in the city and liberties then about 100,000.
    1. 1810. Married at East Haddon, Connecticut, nine young ladies, being all those that were marriageable at that time in the town. Same day, died in Philadelphia, colonel Francis/ Wade, of Montgomery county, Pennsylvania*, in his 78th year.

    1 and 2. 1812. In the night the French opened the trenches against Valentia. Colonel Henry, an engineer of great merit, belonging to Suchet, killed.

    1. 1814. General Hall ordered a party of American dragoons to advance on Buffaloe, under captain Stone, accompanied by lieutenants Riddle, Totman and Frazer, of the fifteenth United States regiment; the militia retiring, Totman was killed, and Riddle narrowly escaped being captured.

    1. 1815. The British under general Pakenham open , ed a battery of two 18 pounders on the Americans at New Orleans; it was silenced the same day. The Americans had a boat laden with military stores sunk, great part of which were recovered, 34 men killed and wounded, and 2 caissons hlo.wn up by rockets; one of them contained 100 rounds. Same dav, general Thomas joined general Jackson with 660 men from Baton Rouge.

    1. 1816. Died in Montville, Con. in his 88th year, William Hilhouse, he was for more than 50 years a member of the legislature or council of Connecticut.

    1. 1817. The new Bank of the United States first opened at Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, for the transaction of business. Wm. Jones, President; and Jonathan Smith, Cashier.

    Banks—First one began 808; Bank of Venice 1157; Genoa 1345; Amsterdam 1609; England 1693. Old Scotch Bank 1649; Hamburg 1710; Royal Bank of Scotland 1727; first Bank in America opened in Philadelphia for supplying the soldiers with provisions, June 17, 1780... Bank of North America the first incorporated 1781. Bank of Ireland 1783. First at Boston and New York 1784. In the British settlements in the East Indies 1787. New Hampshire and Soufh Carolina 1792. Bank of Pennsylvania and District of Columbia in 1793. Since that period they have encreased to an astonishing number. Pennsylvania alone containing, in 1817, 70 banking institutions; of which 10 are within the city of Philadelphia and Liberties, and 22 of them unlawful or unincorporated.

    About the author:
    Francis Shallus (1773-1821) was born in Philadelphia into a patriotic family,  as the revolution was beginning to swirl around his town. When things began to calm down in Philadelphia, young Shallus apprenticed to Robert Scot, the 1st engraver actually employed by the Philadelphia Mint. While working at his busy little print shop as the fledgling nation grew, he apparently decided to share his knowlege and opinions of history in book form. He published 2 volumes called Chronological tables for every day in the year, compiled from the most authentic documents. His work was the first American "Today in History."  Although these volumes produced in 1817, contain events before America's colonization, I will include only British American & early national citations in this blog.


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  • 01/01/13--02:30: Happy New Year 2013!


  • Jonathan Adams Bartlett (American artist, 1817-1902) Harriet, the artist's fiance c 1840


    Wishing you God's peace & joy & love for the coming year!

     

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    January 2
     
    2. 1777. Cannonading' at Trenton. The British repulsed in their attempt to cross Sanpink creek bridge. In the night general Washington retired leaving his fires burning.

    2. 1788. Federal Constitution adopted unanimously by Georgia, being the fourth state in succession that adopted it.

    2. 1815. General Adair joined general Jackson with 4000 men, and encamped within three miles of New Orleans. Same day, the prince regent of England, extended the military Order of Bath; and divided it into three classes, viz. 1st, Knight's grand crosses. 2d, Knights commanders, and 3d, Companions. This order was created by George I. Same day, lieutenant colonel Peter L. Berry's de tachment of Philadelphia militia of general Cadwalader's brigade, was inspected and discharged the United States service.

    2. 1817. Elias Boudinot of Burlington, New Jersey, gave 500 dollars towards the establishment of the asylum for teaching the deaf and dumb, instituted at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1816. In 1794 he gave 2,666 dollars to the college of New Brunswick, and 10,000 dols. in 1816 to the Bible society. He also gave other donations to a very considerable amount.
     
    About the author:
    Francis Shallus (1773-1821) was born in Philadelphia into a patriotic family,  as the revolution was beginning to swirl around his town. When things began to calm down in Philadelphia, young Shallus apprenticed to Robert Scot, the 1st engraver actually employed by the Philadelphia Mint. While working at his busy little print shop as the fledgling nation grew, he apparently decided to share his knowlege and opinions of history in book form. He published 2 volumes called Chronological tables for every day in the year, compiled from the most authentic documents. His work was the first American "Today in History."  Although these volumes produced in 1817, contain events before America's colonization, I will include only British American & early national citations in this blog.
     
     

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    January 3

    3. 1777 Battle of Princeton—General Washington defeated the British; they lost among other officers, captain Leslie, son of the earl of Leven; and upwards of one hundred men killed on the spot, also three hundred taken prisoners. The Americans lost general Mercer, colonels Haslet and Potter, captains Neale and Fleming, and five other valuable officers, with twenty-five or thirty men slain. Brigadier general Hugh Mercer was a native of Scotland, and served with Washington in the war against the French and Indians, which terminated in 1763. In this action he received three bayonet wounds, it is said, after he had surrendered, and of which he died on the 19th of January. The British did very considerable damage to the college library.

    3. 1815. British frigate Junon, captain C. Upton, captured the American privateer Guerrier, F. A. Burnham, of four guns and sixty men, from Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Same day, the first regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, under colonel Clement C. Biddle, mustered and discharged the United States service.
     
    About the author:
    Francis Shallus (1773-1821) was born in Philadelphia into a patriotic family,  as the revolution was beginning to swirl around his town. When things began to calm down in Philadelphia, young Shallus apprenticed to Robert Scot, the 1st engraver actually employed by the Philadelphia Mint. While working at his busy little print shop as the fledgling nation grew, he apparently decided to share his knowlege and opinions of history in book form. He published 2 volumes called Chronological tables for every day in the year, compiled from the most authentic documents. His work was the first American "Today in History."  Although these volumes produced in 1817, contain events before America's colonization, I will include only British American & early national citations in this blog.
     
     

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    George Hollingsworth (American artist, 1813-1882) The Hollingsworth Family


    Johannes Adam Simon Oertel (Bavarian-born American artist, 1823-1909) Visiting Grandma 1865


    Johannes Adam Simon Oertel (Bavarian-born American artist, 1823-1909) Return from Meeting


    Johannes Adam Simon Oertel (Bavarian-born American artist, 1823-1909) The Colgate Family

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    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) Looking Down Tremont, Boston


    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) A View of the Plaza from Central Park, New York City


    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) The Wharf and Custom House Tower, ca. 1915


    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) Busy Winter Day, Tremont and Park Streets, Boston


    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) Copley Square, Boston 1908


    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) Copley Square, Boston


    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) Misty Winter Morning


    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) Tremont Street, Boston, 1911


    Arthur Clifton Goodwin (American artist, 1864-1929) Park Street Church in Winter.

     

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    Herman N. Hyneman (American artist, 1849–1907) Woman in Snow


    Herman N. Hyneman (American artist, 1849–1907) Winter Hat


    Herman N. Hyneman (American artist, 1849–1907) Lady in Winter in New York.



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