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    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Going to Church 1853


    George Henry Durrie was an American artist whose rural winter scenes became popular during the Civil War era. Durrie was born in New Haven, Connecticut, where his father was an emigrant from England, & his mother was a descendant of Governor William Bradford, a Mayflower pilgrim. Durrie taught himself to paint in his teens. In 1839, Durrie & his brother John began 2 years of artistic instruction from Nathaniel Jocelyn, a local engraver & portrait painter. Much of Durrie’s early career was spent as an itinerant portrait painter, traveling over the countryside in search of commissions in rural areas. In 1839, Durrie traveled to Hartford & Bethany, Connecticut; and 1840-1841, he worked in Naugatuck & Meriden, Connecticut, and in Freehold & Keyport, New Jersey. After 1842, he settled in New Haven with his new wife & growing family; but he made painting trips to New Jersey, New York, & Virginia. His account book shows at this time his portraits were between $5 to & $15 each. To supplement his income, Durrie did other painting jobs such as altering portraits, varnishing, & painting decorative motifs on window shutters. Around 1850, he began painting genre scenes of rural life & winter landscapes; as portrait painters began to lose business to the camera. An advertisement in the New Haven Daily Register reads: “Having engaged for a few months past in painting a number of choice Winter Scenes, [G. H. Durrie] would offer them at public sale to the admirers of the fine arts… It is needless to add that no collection of pictures is complete without one or more Winter Scenes.” Four of his prints were published by Currier & Ives between 1860 & the artist's death in New Haven in 1863; & 6 additional prints were issued after his death.


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) A Cold Morning


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Gathering Wood for Winter 1855


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Hunter in Winter Wood


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Farmstead in Winter 1860


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Farmyard in Winter 1862


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Yellow Farmhouse in Winter 1859


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Wintertime on the Farm


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter Scene New Haven Connecticut 1858


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter Scene in New England 1859


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter Scene 1857


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter Landscape


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter Landscape with Log Cart 1855


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter in the Country the Old Grist Mill 1862


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter in the Country on a Cold Morning 1861


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter in the Country Getting Ice 1862


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter in the Country Farmyard 1858


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter in the Country 1861


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter in the Country 1857


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter in New England 1852


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter Farmyard and Sleigh


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Winter Farm Yard 1855


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) The Halfway House 1861


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Seven Miles to Farmington


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Red Schoolhouse Winter 1858


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) On the Road to Boston


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) New England Winter Scene 1858


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Ketcham Farm in Winter, New Haven


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Jones Inn Winter 1855


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Jones Inn in Winter 1853


    George Henry Durrie (American artist, 1820–1863) Feeding the Sheep 1862


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    George Inness (American Hudson River School & Tonalist Painter, 1825-1894) Home at Montclair


    George Inness (American Hudson River School & Tonalist Painter, 1825-1894) Winter Evening
    George Inness (American Hudson River School & Tonalist Painter, 1825-1894) Winter, Close of Day

    George Inness (American Hudson River School & Tonalist Painter, 1825-1894) Christmas Eve



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    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Early Canadian Homestead 1859


    Cornelius Krieghoff was born in Amsterdam, spent his formative years in Bavaria, and studied in Rotterdam & Dusseldorf. He traveled to the United States in the 1830s, where he served in the Army for a few years. He married a young woman from Quebec and moved to the Montreal area, where he painted genre paintings of the people & countryside of Canada. According to Charles C. Hill, Curator of Canadian Art at the National Gallery, "Krieghoff was the first Canadian artist to interpret in oils... the splendour of our waterfalls, and the hardships and daily life of people living on the edge of new frontiers" Krieghoff moved to Quebec from 1854-1863, before he came to Chicago to live with his daughter.


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Death of the Moose at Sunset, Lake Famine, South of Quebec


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) After the Ball, Chez Jolifou


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) A Winter Incident


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Bargaining for a Load of Wood


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Crossing the Saint Lawrence from Levis to Quebec on a Sleigh


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Breaking up of a country ball in Canada in the early morning 1857


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Sleigh Race across the Ice 1861


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Bilking the Toll


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Bringing in the Deer


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Ice Bridge at Longue Point 1847


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Harnessing up


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) The Toll Gate 1861


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) At the Blacksmith's Shop 1871


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Following the Moose 1860


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) The Blizzard 1857


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Indian Woman Moccasin Seller


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) The Habitat Farm 1856


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Winter Landscape 1849


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Winter Landscape Laval 1862


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) The River Road 1855


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Habitants on a Trip to Town


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) In the Jardin de Caribou, 59 miles below Quebec


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Indians Hunting a Caribou


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) J B Jolifou, Aubergiste


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Log Hut on the St Maurice


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Habitant Family with Horse and Sleigh


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) In the Jardin de Caribou, below Quebec Detail


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Log Cabin, Winter Scene, Lake St Charles


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Lt Alfred Torrens and His Wife in Front of the Citadel


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) On Lake Laurent


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Playtime, Village School


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Return from the Hunt


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Settler's House


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Settler's Log House


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Sleigh Race Across the Ice


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Sleigh Race on the St Lawrence at Quebec



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    Louis Rémy Mignot (American Hudson River School painter, (1831-1870) Winter Skating Scene


    Louis Rémy Mignot (American Hudson River School painter, (1831-1870) Hunters in Winter Landscape


    Charles Herbert Moore (American painter, 1840-1930) Winter Landscape, Valley of the Catskills 1866


    Edward E. Simmons (American painter, 1852-1931) Boston Public Garden 1893


    Edward Moran (American painter, 1829-1901) Winter at the Farm


    John La Farge (American painter, 1835-1910) Snow. January. Southerly Wind, Cloudy Sky and Sunlight.


    Regis-Francois Gignoux (French-born American Hudson River School Painter, 1816-1882) Winter Sports


    Regis-Francois Gignoux (French-born American Hudson River School Painter, 1816-1882) Skaters by the Mill


    Regis-Francois Gignoux (French-born American Hudson River School Painter, 1816-1882) View Near Elizabethtown, N. J


    Thomas Kirby Van Zandt (American painter, 1814-1886) Judge Van Aernum in His Sleigh 1855


    Thompkins H Matteson (American painter, 1813-1884) Playing in the Snow 1856


    Unknown Artist, Winter Sunday in Norway, Maine c 1860


    William Van de Velde Bonfield (American painter, 1834-1885 ) Winter, Burlington County, NJ


    Winslow Homer (American painter, 1836-1910) Sleigh Ride


    William Charles Anthony Frerichs (Belgium-born American artist) Ice Skating


    Eastman Johnson (American artist, ) On Their Way to Camp


    James Brade Sword (American artist, 1839–1915) Winter Landscape


    John George Brown (American artist, 1831-1913) Curling, a Scottish Game, at Central Park


    James Goodwyn Clonney (American genre artist, 1812–1867) The Sleigh Ride


    Nelson Augustus Moore (American artist, 1824-1902) April Snow


    Samuel S. Carr (American artist, 1837–1908) A Cold Walk Home


    Nelson Augustus Moore (American artist, 1824-1902) Bridge in Winter


    Samuel S. Carr (American artist, 1837–1908) School Days


    Nelson Augustus Moore (American artist, 1824-1902) Moore & Sons Mill


    Samuel S. Carr (American artist, 1837–1908) School's Out


    Thomas Birch (English-born American artist, 1779-1851) Winter Scene, Pennsylvania 1840


    Unidentified American artist, Musicians in the Snow 1876


    William John Hennessy (American artist, 1839–1917) Out and About after the Snowfall


    Winslow Homer (American artist, 1836-1910) Winter at Prouts Neck, Maine


    John O'Brien Inman (American artist, 1828-1896 ) Moonlight Skating, Central Park, the Terrace and Lake 1877


    Nicholas Winfield Scott Leighton (American artist, ca.1847-1898) Horse-Drawn Sleighs Racing 1885


    John Carlin (American artist, 1813–1891) Snow Scene at Utica


    Martin Andreas Reisner (Russian-born American artist, 1798-1862) The Forest Queen in Winter 1857


    Nicholas Winfield Scott Leighton (American, ca.1847-1898) Seal Skin Brigade


    William Charles Anthony Frerichs (Belgium-born American artist) Skating in Winter


    Paul Cornoyer (American artist, 1864-1923) Winter twilight along Central Park 1900


    Charles Christian Nahl (German-born American artist, 1818-1878) The Dead Miner



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    Although John Tyler's (1790-1862) decision to annex Texas led to the violent Mexican-American War, Tyler had a sensitive side as well. After his first wife died early in his presidency, he courted the much younger Julia Gardener (1820-1889). In a poem he wrote for her, he contemplated giving love a second chance:

    "Shall I again that Harp unstring,
    Which long hath been a useless thing,
    Unheard in Lady's bower?"

    Francesco Anelli (Italian-born American artist, 1805-1878) Julia Gardiner Tyler, second wife of President John Tyler c 1846

    President Tyler's first wife Letitia Christian Tyler (1790-1842) died in the fall of 1842. Julia Gardiner had met President Tyler in January of 1842. In the spring of 1843, the widowed Tyler saw Julia again at a card party at the White House. He was smitten by the young beauty, nearly 30 years his junior. He asked her to marry him within weeks, but she didn't immediately agree.

    In February of 1844, both were on a new steam frigate, when a huge naval gun exploded, killing a number of people, including Julia's father. This shared trauma seemed to draw them together. The next June, Julia married John Tyler in a secret ceremony in her home state of New York.

    President John Tyler (1790-1862), painting by "Hart," c 1841–45

    The 24-year-old stepped into the role of First Lady with vigor & became a new kind of First Lady. She was the 1st to pose for a daguerreotype; to hire a press agent; to dance at a White House party; and to be constantly accompanied by 12 "maids of honor," six on each side, all dressed alike.

    John Tyler only served 1 term, so Julia's tenure as First Lady was over in a few months. The couple returned to Virginia, & had 7 children to expand Tyler's original family of 8 children.


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    John Thomas Peele (English-born American genre artist, 1822–1897) Feeding the Pets


    English-born John Thomas Peele came to the United States with his family, when he was a child. As a young man, he painted portraits in America; and in 1846, Peele opened a studio in New York City, where he also produced genre paintings.  He returned to England in 1851, becoming active in the Society of British Arltists & living on the Isle of Man from 1858 to 1865, & dying in England in 1897.


    John Thomas Peele (English-born American genre artist, 1822–1897) Dressing Myself


    John Thomas Peele (English-born American genre artist, 1822–1897) Asleep on the Watch


    John Thomas Peele (English-born American genre artist, 1822–1897) Girl with Twigs


    John Thomas Peele (English-born American genre artist, 1822–1897) Two Children and a Kid


    John Thomas Peele (English-born American genre artist, 1822–1897) The Young Scholar


    John Thomas Peele (English-born American genre artist, 1822–1897) Family Introductions in a Young Family


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    18th-Century Dancing

    Dance in the Morning

    I danced in the morning when the world was begun,
    And I danced in the moon and the stars and the sun,
    And I came down from heaven and I danced on the earth,
    At Bethlehem I had my birth.

    Dance, then, wherever you may be.
    I am the Lord of the dance, said he.
    I'll lead you all wherever you may be,
    I will lead you all in the Dance, said he.

    Dancing in a Grove in the 18th-century

    Sidney Carter (1915–2004) wrote these words in 1963 Britain, to a 19th-century Shaker melody, "Simple Gifts" by Joseph Brackett. The tune was written by American Joseph Brackett (1797–1882) who first joined the Shakers at Gorham, Maine, when his father's farm helped to form the nucleus of a new Shaker settlement. The song was largely unknown outside of American Shaker communities; until it became world famous thanks to its use in Aaron Copland's score for Martha Graham's ballet "Appalachian Spring," 1st performed in 1944. Copland used "Simple Gifts" a second time in 1950, in his first set of "Old American Songs" for voice & piano, which was later orchestrated.

    Dancing in the 19th-century

    19th-Century Dance
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    In Louisiana

    See www.slaveryimages.org, sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities & the Digital Media Lab at the University of Virginia Library. The Atlantic Slave Trade & Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record by Jerome S. Handler & Michael L. Tuite Jr.



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    Plantation Slave Singers

    See www.slaveryimages.org, sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities & the Digital Media Lab at the University of Virginia Library. The Atlantic Slave Trade & Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record by Jerome S. Handler & Michael L. Tuite Jr.

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    Dancing in Lynchburg, Virginia 1853


    See www.slaveryimages.org, sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities & the Digital Media Lab at the University of Virginia Library. The Atlantic Slave Trade & Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record by Jerome S. Handler & Michael L. Tuite Jr.


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    The Breakdown

    See www.slaveryimages.org, sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities & the Digital Media Lab at the University of Virginia Library. The Atlantic Slave Trade & Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record by Jerome S. Handler & Michael L. Tuite Jr.



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    Jerome Thompson (American painter, 1814-1886) Recreations 1857 detail


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     John Eastman (American Painter, fl 1842-1880) Fiddling his Way (Black fiddle player)


    Eastman Johnson (American painter, 1824-1906) An Earnest Pupil 1881


    Cornelius Krieghoff (Canadian genre painter, 1815-1872),  Fiddler and Boy Doing Jig
     
     
    Henry Ossawa Tanner (American artist, 1859–1937) The Banjo Lesson
     
     
     George Caleb Bingham (American artist, 1811-1879) The Jolly Floatmen
     
     
    Eastman Johnson (American genre painter, 1824-1906).  Musical Instrument
     
     
    John Eastman (American Painter, fl 1842-1880) Young Musicians
     
     
    Eastman Johnson (American painter, 1824-1906) Negro Boy 1860
     
     
    George Caleb Bingham (American genre painter, 1811-1879)  Jolly Flatboatmen in Port
     
     
    Cornelius Krieghoff (Canadian genre painter, 1815-1872),  Breaking Lent
     
     
    John Eastman (American Painter, fl 1842-1880) Fiddling His Way (White fiddle player)
     

    Samuel S. Carr (American genre painter, 1837–1908) Little Drummer Boy
     
     
     Lily Martin Spencer (1822 - 1902 ) War Spirit at Home 1866
     
     

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    Immigrant artist John Lewis Krimmel was one of the first painters to record early 4th of July celebrations. He was born in Ebingen, Wurtemberg, Germany, in 1787, and accidently drowned near German-town, Pennsylvania, in July of 1821. He came to Philadelphia in 1809, to engage in business with his brother but soon abandoned the business to concentrate on his art.

    He began his art career painting portraits, but a copy of Wilkie's "Blind Fiddler" caught his attention; & he turned to humorous subjects and genre painting. Krimmel gathered information for his paintings in the American countryside around Philadelphia by observing local habits, rituals, & ceremonies, so even though he took most of his compositional formats from British prints made after paintings by the satirical artists William Hogarth & David Wilkie, his subject matter was familiar to his potential audience at the Pennsylvania Academy. He also painted more serious historical pictures, & at the time of his death he had received a commission to paint a large canvas on the landing of William Penn. Krimmel was president of the Society of American artists.

    John Lewis Krimmel (German-born American artist, 1786-1821) Barroom Dancing 1820


    John Lewis Krimmel (German-born American artist, 1786-1821) Merrymaking at a Wayside Inn


    John Lewis Krimmel (German American arttist, 1786-1821) The Quilting Frolic 1813


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    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) Catching the Tune 1866-7
     

    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) Dance of the Haymakers 1845


    The Irish tradition of "dancing a jig" in the Middle Atlantic was noted by a newspaper reporter in the middle of the century.  In 1848, a reporter for the New York Tribune visited a hotel in Philadelphia's Southwark district where working-class men & women came to drink & dance. When the "old negro fiddler" strikes up a tune in a dancing-room upstairs, the reporter records,

    "The dance proceeds for a few minutes in tolerable order; but soon the excitement grows, the dancers begin … accelerating their movements, accompanied with shouts of laughter, yells of encouragement and applause, … Affairs are now at their height. The black fiddler increases the momentum of his elbow and calls out the figure in convulsive efforts to be heard [while] the dancers, now wild with excitement, leap frantically about … and at length conclude the dance in the wildest disorder and confusion. As soon as the parties recover, the fiddler makes his appearance among them and receives from each gentleman a tip as his proportion of the ceremony of 'facing the music,' and the floor is cleared for a new set; and so goes on the night."


    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) Right and Left 1850


    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) Dancing on the Barn Floor 1831


    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) The Banjo Player 1856


    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) Rustic Dance After a Sleigh Ride 1830


    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) The Bone Player 1856


    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) The Breakdown Bar Room Scene 1835


    William Sidney Mount (American painter, 1807-1868) The Power of Music 1847


    William Sidney Mount (American genre painter, 1807-1868)  The Banjo Player 1856


    A truly fine bibliography of Music and Dance in 18th and 19th century America has just been published in Common Place here.  You will need to go to the Common Place site for the wonderful essays that Guest Editors Peter Leavenworth, Nikos Pappas, & Stephen Marini have collected featuring some of the most exciting new work now appearing in American music history.

    Databases

    Early American Secular Music and Its European Sources, 1589-1839: An Indexhttp://www.colonialdancing.org/Easmes/Index.htm

    The Hymn Tune Index. All hymns printed anywhere in the world with English-language texts up to 1820
    http://hymntune.library.uiuc.edu/default.asp

    Research Centers for American Music

    American Music Institute, University of Michigan
    http://www-personal.umich.edu/~claguem/ami/

    American Music Research Center, University of Colorado, Boulder
    http://music.colorado.edu/departments/amrc/

    Archive of Popular American Music, University of California, Los Angeles
    http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/music/mlsc/apam.cfm

    The Center for American Music, University of Pittsburgh. Holdings at the center include the Foster Hall Collection relating to Stephen Collins Foster
    http://www.pitt.edu/~amerimus/cam1.htm

    The Center for Black Music Research, Columbia College, Chicago
    http://www.cbmr.org/

    The Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro
    http://popmusic.mtsu.edu/

    Hawaiian Collection, University of Hawai'i at Manoa
    http://www2.hawaii.edu/~speccoll/hawaii.html

    John Jacob Niles Center for American Music, University of Kentucky
    http://finearts.uky.edu/music/niles

    The Joseph Downs Collection of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera, Winterthur, Delaware. Holdings at the center include the Edward Deming Andrews Memorial Shaker Collection; illuminated manuscripts from the Ephrata Cloister, a German Protestant monastic community in east Pennsylvania; and other sacred music copybooks.
    http://www.winterthur.org/?p=435

    Latin American Music Center, Indiana University, Bloomington
    http://music.indiana.edu/lamc/home/

    Moravian Music Foundation, an independent archive, library, and performing center dedicated to music of the Unitas Fratum or Moravian Church in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
    http://www.moravianmusic.org/

    The Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Center devoted to John Philip Sousa and his associates and American band music of the 19th and early 20th century
    http://www.library.illinois.edu/sousa/

    Wisconsin Music Archives, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Holdings include Wisconsin themed and composed sheet music and recordings from the 1850s to the present.
    http://music.library.wisc.edu/wma/

    Sheet Music and other Source Documents:

    19th-Century American Sheet Music, Music Library—University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    http://www.lib.unc.edu/dc/sheetmusic/

    19th-Century California Sheet Music, a virtual library of some 2,700 pieces of sheet music published in California between 1852 and 1900
    http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~mkduggan/neh.html

    African American Sheet Music, Brown University Library Center for Digital Scholarship
    http://library.brown.edu/cds/sheetmusic/afam//index.html

    Alabama Sheet Music, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Collection of sheet music by Alabamians, about Alabama, and/or published in the state of Alabama
    http://acumen.lib.ua.edu/u0004_0000003

    American Popular Print Music Collection: Florida Atlantic University Libraries
    http://www.library.fau.edu/depts/spc/spc/printmusic_appm.htm

    Archive of Popular Music
    http://digital.library.ucla.edu/apam/

    The Ashford Sheet Music Collection: University of Washington
    http://db.lib.washington.edu/sheetmusic/

    Confederate Imprints Collection: Sheet Music, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Sheet music issued from Confederate music publishers
    http://acumen.lib.ua.edu/u0004_0000001

    Duke University Libraries, Historic American Sheet Music
    http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/hasm/

    E. Azalia Hackley Collection, African American-themed sheet music in the Detroit Public Library
    http://www.thehackley.org/about.html

    Frances G. Spencer Collection of American Popular Sheet Music, Baylor University
    http://digitalcollections.baylor.edu/cdm/landingpage/collection/fa-spnc

    IN Harmony: Sheet Music from Indiana, a virtual library that features Indiana-related sheet music—sheet music by Indiana composers, arrangers, lyricists or publishers as well as sheet music about the state
    http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/inharmony/welcome.do

    International Music Score Library Project: Petrucci Music Library, Internet site for the posting of sheet music from Europe, Asia, and America from the Medieval era through the 21st century
    http://imslp.org/wiki/Main_Page

    Iowa Digital Library, The University of Iowa Libraries, Historic Sheet Music, sheet music printed in or relating to Iowa from the 19th and 20th centuries
    http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/search/collection/sheetmusic

    The Lester S. Levy Collection of Sheet Music, Special Collections at the Sheridan Libraries of The Johns Hopkins University, digital library of American music spanning the 18th through the 20th centuries
    http://levysheetmusic.mse.jhu.edu/

    Library Of Congress
    American Memory
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html

    African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/sheetmusic/brown/

    An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals, ca. 1490-1920
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/dihtml/dihome.html

    America Singing: Nineteenth-Century Song Sheets
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amsshtml/amsshome.html

    An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and other Printed Ephemera
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/rbpehtml/

    American Variety Stage: Vaudeville and Popular Entertainment 1870-1920
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/vshtml/vshome.html

    Band Music from the Civil War Era
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwmhtml/cwmhome.html

    Captain Pearl R. Nye: Life on the Ohio and Erie Canal
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/nye/index.html

    Dayton C. Miller Flute Collection
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/dcmhtml/dmhome.html

    Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/berlhtml/berlhome.html

    Fiddle Tunes of the Old Frontier: The Henry Reed Collection
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/reed/

    Hispano Music & Culture of the Northern Rio Grande: The Juan B. Rael Collection
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/rghtml/rghome.html

    Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music 1820-1885
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/mussmhtml/

    Performing Arts Encyclopedia
    http://www.loc.gov/performingarts/

    African-American Band Music & Recordings, 1883-1923
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/stocks/stocks-home.html

    Baseball Sheet Music, c. 1850-1930
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/search?query=memberOf:baseball&view=thumbnail&sort=titlesort&label=Baseball%20Sheet%20Music

    American Choral Music 1870-c. 1920
    http://memory.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/choralmusic/choralmusic-home.html

    Civil War Sheet Music Collection
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/civilwar/civilwar-home.html

    Gilded Age Presidential Campaign Songs
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/search?query=memberOf:campaign&start=0&view=thumbnail&sort=titlesort&label=Presidential%20Campaign%20Songs

    Historic Sheet Music Collection, 1800-1922, possibly originating with the recording division of Thomas A. Edison, Inc.
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/volcano/volcano-home.html

    Home Sweet Home: Life in Nineteenth-Century Ohio
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/ohio/ohio-home.html

    The March King: John Philip Sousa
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/sousa/sousa-home.html

    Patriotic Melodies
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/patriotic/patriotic-home.html

    Music of Old Nebraska, The Polley Music Library in Lincoln, Nebraska. Nebraska-composed music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries
    http://polleymusic.lincolnlibraries.org/depts/polley/Music_of_Old_Nebraska_home.htm

    Pittsburgh Sheet Music Collection, The Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. A collection of sheet music published in Pittsburgh
    http://www.carnegielibrary.org/research/music/pittsburgh/sheetmusic/

    Shape-Note Tunebooks at the Cooperative Digital Resources Initiative. A collection of hymnals and sacred music collections in Georgia libraries
    https://www2.atla.com/digitalresources/results.asp?pagenumber=1&cl1=ALL&keyword=shape+note&title=&description=&subject=

    University of Colorado Digital Sheet Music Collection, Colorado and western-themed sheet music of the 19th and 20th centuries
    http://libcudl.colorado.edu/sheetmusic/browse.asp?

    Wade Hall Collection of Southern History and Culture: Sheet Music, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Collection of Southern and Southern-themed sheet music of the 19th and early 20th centuries
    http://acumen.lib.ua.edu/u0004_0000002

    Websites Relating to Various Aspects of American Music

    African American Spirituals. Religious music traditions of African Americans
    http://www.negrospirituals.com/

    Blackface Minstrelsy. A popular form of entertainment in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that caricatured urban and rural African Americans. Although its roots extend to eighteenth-century Great Britain, the first blackface minstrel troupe, The Virginia Minstrels, formed in New York City. This genre of music was very influential in early country music of the twentieth century.
    http://black-face.com/

    California Mission Music. Music practiced by the Spanish padres and Native American choirs in the mission churches throughout California
    http://www.californiamissionstudies.com/Research/Articles/California_Mission_Music.html

    Colonial Music Institute. Website devoted to the practice of colonial music in the English-speaking colonies
    http://www.colonialmusic.org/Resource/DHessay.htm

    Music of the Shakers. Website devoted to the history of Shaker music with links to recordings
    http://www.americanmusicpreservation.com/shakermusic.htm

    Shape-Note Singing. Social sacred music singing from The Sacred Harp, a Southern evangelical religious collection of music published originally by two Georgia Baptists, Benjamin Franklin White and Elisha J. King in 1844. Website devoted to Sacred Harp singing as it is currently practiced throughout the United States and abroad.
    http://fasola.org/


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    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Melinda Prouty Lamson-with son Nathaniel


    An itinerant painter born in Massachusetts, Joseph Chandler was a typical 19th-century American folk artist traveling from place to place painting portraits. To the relief of modern-day curators, he signed & dated his paintings on the backs of the canvases.  His portraits of children capture the awkwardness of his sitters, and he often included toys & pets & perhaps a landscape in the background--something he did not do with his adult sitters.


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Boy and Girl in Rose Garden


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Mary Elizabeth Bennet


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Whiting and Joseph Griswold


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Frederick Eugene Bennet


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Sylvia Parsons of Conway, Massachusetts


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Drummer Boy


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Girl with Kitten


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Mrs Annis S Griffen


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Boy and his Dog


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Annis Griffen


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Harriet M Kendall 1845


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Charles H Sisson


    Joseph Goodhue Chandler (American artist, 1813 – 1884) Small Boy with Dog


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    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Jasper Raymond Rand 1844 (No grapes for the dog.)


    Joseph Stock was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, working there most of his life. It is reported that he painting more than 900 works during his brief career. He sometimes shared a studio with local photographer O.H. Cooley and may have used some of his photographs as his portraits.


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) William James Coffin in a blue dress with a small white dog


    At age 11, Stock suffered a crippling accident. He was later encouraged by a doctor to take up painting. He studied briefly with Francis White, a pupil of Chester Harding, but was mainly self-taught. He began his career by copying paintings of historical heroes, but soon switched to portraits, some painted as a memorial after their deaths. He was remarkable for his use of color.


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Girl with Riticule and Rose c 1840


    Attributed to Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Amy Philpot in a Blue Dress wiwth Doll and Goldfish


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Child with Basket


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Baby in Wicker Basket 1840


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Boy with a Dog


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) The Marshall Children


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Young Girl 1837


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Jane Henrietta Russell


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Jane Tyler 1845


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Addison C Rand 1844


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Mary and Francis Wilcox


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Baby Boy with Rattle, Whip, and Ball


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Martha Otis Bullock 1841


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Mary Jane Smith


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Mother and Girl with Yellow Slippers c 1840


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Samuel Son of Captain Gardener 1842


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Boy with Whip and Sister with Flowers


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) The Farnum Children


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Girl in Pink Dress Holding Miniature Basket 1838


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Two Girlss with Red Dresses


    Joseph Whiting Stock (American artist, 1815–1855) Self Portrait



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    Winslow Homer (American artist, 1836-1910) Dogs in a Boat (also called Waiting for the Start) 1889


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    Apparently, during the Victorian era, fans had a language of their own.

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    1 The fan placed near the heart: “You have won my love”
    2 A closed fan touching the right eye: “When may I be allowed to see you?”
    3 The number of sticks shown answered the question: “At what hour?”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    4 Threatening movements with a fan closed: “Do not be so imprudent”
    5 Half-opened fan pressed to the lips: “You may kiss me”
    6 Hands clasped together holding an open fan: “Forgive me”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    7 Covering the left ear with an open fan: “Do not betray our secret”
    8 Hiding the eyes behind an open fan: “I love you”
    9 Shutting a fully opened fan slowly: “I promise to marry you”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    10 Drawing the fan across the eyes: “I am sorry”
    11 Touching the finger to the tip of the fan: “I wish to speak with you”
    12 Letting the fan rest on the right cheek: “Yes”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    13 Letting the fan rest on the left cheek: “No”
    14 Opening and closing the fan several times: “You are cruel”
    15 Dropping the fan: “We will be friends”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    16 Fanning slowly: “I am married”
    17 Fanning quickly: “I am engaged”
    18 Putting the fan handle to the lips: “Kiss me”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    19 Opening a fan wide: “Wait for me”
    20 Placing the fan behind the head: “Do not forget me”
    21 Placing the fan behind the head with finger extended: “Goodbye”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    22 Fan in right hand in front of face: “Follow me”
    23 Fan in left hand in front of face: “I am desirous of your acquaintance”
    24 Fan held over left ear: “I wish to get rid of you”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    25 Drawing the fan across the forehead: “You have changed”
    26 Twirling the fan in the left hand: “We are being watched”
    27 Twirling the fan I the right hand: “I love another”

    Alvan S. Harper (1847-1911) Tallahassee c 1884 State Library and Archives of Florida

    28 Carrying the open fan in the right hand: “You are too willing”
    29 Carrying the open fan in the left hand: “Come and talk to me”
    30 Drawing the fan through the hand: “I hate you!”
    31 Drawing the fan across the cheek: “I love you!”
    32 Presenting the fan shut: “Do you love me?”


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